Rehabilitation of the neurological patients is an essential contributing factor the contemporary therapy of neurological and neurosurgical cases. The neural tissue is able use the resources and reserves of the body and restores for three years after the injury. But three years after the injury the neural tissue is unable to regenerate. All reparative processes are arrested or slowed down, the process of neuroregeneration may continue but do not advance sufficiently so that the restoration of the damaged functions would be notable. Hence, three years after the injury even the best equipment and rehabilitation systems appear low effective, because the resource for tissue regeneration becomes unavailable.
In the long-term post-traumatic period the neural tissue of the brain and spinal cord is unable to form new synaptic contacts, new vessels and microcirculatory bed; they are incapable of independent restoration of the damaged genome of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. The hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) can provide for these opportunities. They are able to trigger the angiogenesis in the damaged tissue thanks to the endotheliocytes, as well as to restore genetic defect in the damaged cells of neural tissue thanks to the fusion of the HSCs and HPCs with the damaged cell systems.
Administration of the HSCs and HPCs in the complex rehabilitation course opens up new perspective for the restoration of the lost function thanks to the restoration of the neurophysiologic bypasses in the neural networks and to the establishment of new vascular microcirculatory anastamoses in the site of injury. So, administration of the HSCs and HPCs in the rehabilitation therapy of the neurological patients is the instrument of choice and is strongly recommended for the clinical practice of neurology and neurosurgery.